Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible or a physical object.
Team composition refers to the overall mix of characteristics among people in a team, which is a unit of two or more individuals who interact interdependently to achieve a common objective. It is based on the attributes among individuals that comprise the team, in addition to their main objective. Team composition is usually either homogeneous, in which all members are the same, or heterogeneous, in which team members all contain significant differences. It has also been identified as a key factor that influences team performance. It factors in the individual attributes of team members and how these contributions can potentially combine to dictate overall performance outcomes for the team. In the past decade, research on team effectiveness has burgeoned as teams have become increasingly common in organizations of all kinds. Research conducted on this topic has focused on aggregated member characteristics, member heterogeneity and team size as categories associated with team composition. The fashion in which a team is configured has a strong influence on team processes and the outcomes that the team achieves. The main outcomes associated with team performance can be classified mostly as performance outcomes internal member outcomes and behavioral outcomes.
creativity in business, three components were needed:
Expertise (technical, procedural and intellectual knowledge),
Creative thinking skills (how flexibly and imaginatively people approach problems),
and Motivation (especially intrinsic motivation).
There are two types of motivation:
extrinsic motivation – external factors, for example threats of being fired or money as a reward,
intrinsic motivation – comes from inside an individual, satisfaction, enjoyment of work, etc.
Six managerial practices to encourage motivation are:
Challenge – matching people with the right assignments;
Freedom – giving people autonomy choosing means to achieve goals;
Resources – such as time, money, space, etc. There must be balance fit among resources and people;
Work group features – diverse, supportive teams, where members share the excitement, willingness to help, and recognize each other's talents;
Organizational support – value emphasis, information sharing, collaboration.
Scholarly interest in creativity is found in a number of disciplines, primarily psychology, business studies, and cognitive science, but also education, technology, engineering, philosophy (particularly philosophy of science), theology, sociology, linguistics, and economics, covering the relations between creativity and general intelligence, personality type, mental and neurological processes, mental health, or artificial intelligence; the potential for fostering creativity through education and training; the fostering of creativity for national economic benefit, and the application of creative resources to improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning.
A focus on the nature of the creative person considers more general intellectual habits, such as openness, levels of ideation, autonomy, expertise, exploratory behavior, and so on. A focus on place considers the circumstances in which creativity flourishes, such as degrees of autonomy, access to resources, and the nature of gatekeepers. Creative lifestyles are characterized by nonconforming attitudes and behaviors as well as flexibility. Theories of creativity (particularly investigation of why some people are more creative than others) have focused on a variety of aspects. The dominant factors are usually identified as "the four Ps" — process, product, person, and place (according to Mel Rhodes). A focus on process is shown in cognitive approaches that try to describe thought mechanisms and techniques for creative thinking. Theories invoking divergent rather than convergent thinking (such as Guilford), or those describing the staging of the creative process (such as Wallas) are primarily theories of creative process. A focus on creative product usually appears in attempts to measure creativity (psychometrics, see below) and in creative ideas framed as successful memes. The psychometric approach to creativity reveals that it also involves the ability to produce more.
Creativity in general is usually distinguished from innovation in particular, where the stress is on implementation. For example, Teresa Amabile and Pratt (2016) defines creativity as production of novel and useful ideas and innovation as implementation of creative ideas, while the OECD and Eurostat state that "Innovation is more than a new idea or an invention. An innovation requires implementation, either by being put into active use or by being made available for use by other parties, firms, individuals or organisations.
process of becoming sensitive to problems, deficiencies, gaps in knowledge, missing elements, disharmonies, and so on; identifying the difficulty; searching for solutions, making guesses, or formulating hypotheses about the deficiencies: testing and retesting these hypotheses and possibly modifying and retesting them; and finally communicating the results."
Main article: Creativity techniques
Several different researchers have proposed methods of increasing the creativity of an individual. Such ideas range from the psychological-cognitive, such as Osborn-Parnes Creative Problem Solving Process, Synectics, science-based creative thinking, Purdue Creative Thinking Program, and Edward de Bono's lateral thinking; to the highly structured, such as TRIZ (the Theory of Inventive Problem-Solving) and its variant Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving (developed by the Russian scientist Genrich Altshuller), and Computer-Aided morphological analysis.
Daniel Pink, in his 2005 book A Whole New Mind, repeating arguments posed throughout the 20th century, argues that we are entering a new age where creativity is becoming increasingly important. In this conceptual age, we will need to foster and encourage right-directed thinking (representing creativity and emotion) over left-directed thinking (representing logical, analytical thought). However, this simplification of 'right' versus 'left' brain thinking is not supported by the research data.
Nickerson provides a summary of the various creativity techniques that have been proposed. These include approaches that have been developed by both academia and industry:
Establishing purpose and intention
Building basic skills
Encouraging acquisitions of domain-specific knowledge
Stimulating and rewarding curiosity and exploration
Building motivation, especially internal motivation
Encouraging confidence and a willingness to take risks
Focusing on mastery and self-competition
Promoting supportable beliefs about creativity
Providing opportunities for choice and discovery
Developing self-management (metacognitive skills)
Teaching techniques and strategies for facilitating creative performance
Creativity exists in all realms and every field of study, from psychology to business, from education to physics and the most notable - the Arts. To understand how one can be creative we must first define it in the context of function. Creativity begins with one's natural ability to use their past experiences, their imagination, and the environment around them to manipulate and act upon a concept or idea and in turn develop that new concept/idea into reality. It can be further simplified as the passion to create something (within the context of one's field of experience) innovative that others can observe. Creativity involves two fundamental actions: imaginative thinking (at times thinking radically off one's field of experience) and then producing the results of those thoughts into something tangible.
This has been a widely accepted way of creative action, though the dilemma exists when we take into consideration the prodigious savant or "knowing one" as they have been affectionately dubbed. Savants appear to be unable to demonstrate creative thinking in the way that we have defined because for them they have no past experience to base their innovation on, yet surprisingly they still appear to us to be limitlessly inventive. What they possess is a prolific fascination with a small field of experience which is a trait that all highly creative people share.
It follows that the top of the 5 ways to get creative is to begin with choosing a field of experience--everybody has something which interests them. You should begin by identifying a narrow subject or field that interests you and passionately take steps to understand it completely. An example would be the artist whose fascination with post-impressionist art compels him to practice day in and day out, learning all the techniques involved.
A second way is to seek some form of inspiration. Inspiration can exist in the form of innovative creations of a mentor or someone you admire whose work causes you to search 'inwards' for answers.
Third, challenge yourself: try that, which, in your mind may seem possible but in the real world seems impractical. It is interesting to know that every invention first existed in someone's mind first and the only way to know for certain if something is impractical is to create it.
Fourth, develop the fantasy by writing it down; keeping that fantastic idea permanently etched somewhere will help you track your progress towards a bigger picture.
Fifth, consult as much as possible. Bouncing your ideas off of more experienced people and friends help you see things in new light. It can be as simple as asking them out for coffee or drinks to informally chat about what you are trying to achieve. Sometimes your eureka moment will spring out in the most unlikely of circumstances.
Rick works at C.R.I.S. Camera Services in Chandler, AZ in [http://www.criscam.com]camera repair research and development. Rick enjoys photography and writing, especially for the company's [http://www.camerarepair.org]camera repair blog. Creativity is something Rick is always interested in finding more of.
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What if I told you I have a way for you to release some of your stress? Would you be interested?
I have found with many clients, including myself, that if we can give ourselves permission to let our creative juices come out to play, we can actually reduce our stress levels. Yes it is true, letting the kid inside us come out to play and getting creative will often help reduce your stress level. Most people would say they really need to decrease their stress level, but getting creative isn't the way they thought they would start. I am suggesting you do just that and connect with your creative side.
When was the last time you let your creative side loose? Was it when you were a kid? Has it been months or maybe even years? I find that we are all very busy taking care of all our responsibilities, that we are spending a lot of time with our logical side which is our left brain selves.
You may have heard the term left brain or right brain people before. Typically we are more dominant with one side or the other, but can tap into our logical or creative side when needed. However, for many people connecting to our creative side, our right side selves, is sometimes a little more difficult. Life is so "on the go" that it seems that it is harder to allow ourselves the time and space to connect with our more visual and creative selves.
When was the last time you...
Colored with crayons or colored pencils Created a recipe from scratch Painted or drew a picture Danced to music Took pictures of things you love Built a sand castle Played with blocks Made something out of play dough or clay Wrote a poem or story Redecorated a room
You might think that this list has a lot of things kids would do, but not things you would do. I ask you, why not? I have been in meetings and events with adults where there were cans of play dough on the table and everyone that grabbed a can of play dough was enjoying themselves a little bit more, smiling and contributing to the discussion with a slightly different attitude than they were without the play dough.
I have been fortunate to have a few very creative people in my life that have opened up the doors to painting for my daughters and I. A good friend of mine is a Creative Healing artist and shares the many wonderful techniques of getting creative; and my sister in-law, who is a well-respected pediatrician, has been sharing her love of painting with many of us in the family and it has taken off. I have actually painted some pictures myself on a canvas, which is something I never thought I would do and the amazing part was that I really enjoyed it.
It seems that kids are ready to go when a paint brush and paints come out, but for adults it takes a little longer to let ourselves go and grab a brush. Why is that? While I often find it difficult to get started, after I get started I have a lot of fun and feel the stress start to release. My logical self always has an idea of what I plan to paint once I finally pick up the paint brush, but my creative self wants it to flow so it always turns out different once I just let the creative juices flow.
In Columbus, there is a wonderful place called "The Sanctuary for the Arts" where you can take creativity classes or go there and get creative for a few hours doing your own thing in their open studio. Local community centers often have art classes as well. Getting creative and connecting with your right brain doesn't have to cost a lot either, you can get a box of crayons and paper for under $5.00 as that works too. Letting yourself get creative can be scary. Some of you might even have butterflies in your stomach just reading this, but I will bet if you go for it, you will feel a little less stressed once you are done.
Tips to get started connecting with your creative side:
Let judgment go. Don't judge what you are creating as you never know what the end result will be.
Trust. Trust that whatever you are creating has been waiting to come out for awhile.
Give permission. Give permission to yourself to let go and get creative.
Don't try to be perfect. You don't have to create a master piece to get creative and release some stress. Let perfectionism go.
Breathe. Often you will feel anxiety getting started. Remember to breathe and move through the anxiety.
Remember you probably did this when you were a kid with no problem.
Smile. Have fun and enjoy the process.
Be. Be present and enjoy as you release stress you may not of even realized was there.
Don't let your logical side rule and take over all the time. Let yourself get some creativity flowing through your veins and watch how the stress melts away. Sometimes you have to get uncomfortable to reach being comfortable with something new. Let yourself move through the anxiety and tell your logical self it is okay to let the artist within emerge.
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She offers valuable insight & lifestyle tips with her free monthly ezine, [http://archive.constantcontact.com/fs070/1102520666622/archive/1102929102972.html]Wellness Tips with Carrie, as well as on her blog. Carrie believes everything feeds our spirit including how we think, what we experience and what we eat. She specifically targets your challenges and fears and unfolds them to guide you in the direction needed for you to overcome and conquer them. She empowers her clients and believes everyone should know their brilliance and enjoy life! Learn more about Carrie by visiting [http://www.carriesaba.com/]her website.
Creativity can be expressed in a number of different forms, depending on unique people and environments. A number of different theorists have suggested models of the creative person. One model suggests that there are four "Creativity Profiles" that can help produce growth, innovation, speed, etc.
Research by Dr Mark Batey of the Psychometrics at Work Research Group at Manchester Business School has suggested that the creative profile can be explained by four primary creativity traits with narrow facets within each
(i) "Idea Generation" (Fluency, Originality, Incubation and Illumination)
(ii) "Personality" (Curiosity and Tolerance for Ambiguity)
(iii) "Motivation" (Intrinsic, Extrinsic and Achievement)
(iv) "Confidence" (Producing, Sharing and Implementing)
This model was developed in a sample of 1000 working adults using the statistical techniques of Exploratory Factor Analysis followed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis by Structural Equation Modelling.
An important aspect of the creativity profiling approach is to account for the tension between predicting the creative profile of an individual, as characterised by the psychometric approach, and the evidence that team creativity is founded on diversity and difference.
One characteristic of creative people, as measured by some psychologists, is what is called divergent production. Divergent production is the ability of a person to generate a diverse assortment, yet an appropriate amount of responses to a given situation. One way of measuring divergent production is by administering the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking assesses the diversity, quantity, and appropriateness of participants responses to a variety of open-ended questions.
Other researchers of creativity see the difference in creative people as a cognitive process of dedication to problem solving and developing expertise in the field of their creative expression. Hard working people study the work of people before them and within their current area, become experts in their fields, and then have the ability to add to and build upon previous information in innovative and creative ways. In a study of projects by design students, students who had more knowledge on their subject on average had greater creativity within their projects.
The aspect of motivation within a person's personality may predict creativity levels in the person. Motivation stems from two different sources, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is an internal drive within a person to participate or invest as a result of personal interest, desires, hopes, goals, etc. Extrinsic motivation is a drive from outside of a person and might take the form of payment, rewards, fame, approval from others, etc. Although extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation can both increase creativity in certain cases, strictly extrinsic motivation often impedes creativity in people.
From a personality-traits perspective, there are a number of traits that are associated with creativity in people. Creative people tend to be more open to new experiences, are more self-confident, are more ambitious, self-accepting, impulsive, driven, dominant, and hostile, compared to people with less creativity.
Diversity between team members’ backgrounds and knowledge can increase team creativity by expanding the total collection of unique information that is available to the team and introducing different perspectives that can integrate in novel ways. However, under some conditions, diversity can also decrease team creativity by making it more difficult for team members to communicate about ideas and causing interpersonal conflicts between those with different perspectives. Thus, the potential advantages of diversity must be supported by appropriate team processes and organizational cultures in order to enhance creativity
Organizational culture encompasses values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of a business. The organizational culture influences the way people interact, the context within which knowledge is created, the resistance they will have towards certain changes, and ultimately the way they share knowledge. Organizational culture represents the collective values, beliefs and principles of organizational members and is a product of factors such as history, product, market, technology, strategy, type of employees, management style, and national culture; culture includes the organization's vision, values, norms, systems, symbols, language, assumptions, environment, location, beliefs and habits.
Supportive and motivational environments that create psychological safety by encouraging risk taking and tolerating mistakes increase team creativity as well.
Organizations in which help-seeking, help giving, and collaboration are rewarded promote innovation by providing opportunities and contexts in which team processes that lead to collective creativity can occur. Additionally, leadership styles that downplay status hierarchies or power differences within an organization and empower people to speak up about their ideas or opinions also help to create cultures that are conducive to creativity-
List of academic journals addressing creativity
Creativity Research Journal
Creativity. Theories – Research - Applications
International Journal of Creative Computing
International Journal of Creativity and Problem Solving
Journal of Creative Behavior
Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts
Thinking Skills and Creativity
Creativity and Innovation Management
Journal of Creativity and Business Innovation
Journal of Creativity in Mental Health
Confabulation (neural networks)
Heroic theory of invention and scientific development
History of the concept of creativity
Invention (such as "artistic invention" in the visual arts)
Why Man Creates (film
Robinson, Andrew (2010). Sudden Genius?: The Gradual Path to Creative Breakthroughs. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-956995-3. Lay summary (24 November 2010).
Here are some surprising
traits of highly creative people
who often feel misplaced. But they feel this way for a reason.
According to research, their brains have structural differences, causing them to think and act differently
. It can be hard to understand a creative person’s mental process. In fact, there are certain things that an average individual will likely never understand about a creative person. That’s because
creative people operate on a more intuitive and imaginative leve
l. In fact, highly creative people seem to thrive in their own world. While they’re often described as dreamers and can immerse themselves in imagination, they can remain grounded in reality. If you know a creative person, you’ve likely gotten frustrated with their
unique personality traits and tendencies
… But, because of the way they look at the world, they are able to create beautiful masterpieces and come up with solutions to real-world issues...
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Researched what makes good ideas spring forward. The result is her "innovation engine," a special mix of six characteristics like attitude, resources and environment. But the special concoction of forces that makes our ideas come to life is nothing with out the willingness to fail. "Most call it failure, but we scientists just call it data," she says. The most creative organizations and people embrace experimentation to get the needed data to determine they're on to something. "Workers are puzzle builders, they get stuck when missing a piece," she says. Truly creative people "are quilt makers — they can fit anything together."
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